From Probe Research:: Between 1999 and 2001, Probe Research estimated that over $20 billion was spent for the deployment of fiber-based networks and the associated facilities within Europe. However, only a handful of competitive players remain from the hordes that had descended on Europe in the late nineties. Companies such as Global Crossing, KPNQwest and Viatel made a headlong rush to gain a foothold in the marketplace, looking to seize market share, regardless of the cost of acquisition. Those remaining competitive players have had to reorganize themselves to obtain a level of profitability. Some even believe that their mission is to provide competition to the incumbents. “It is apparent that companies like Global Crossing, KPNQwest and Viatel also had little if any understanding of the retail markets, of new applications, of the underlying user base on which demand for their networks ultimately depends or of data traffic distribution patterns!” – but we knew that, didn’t we?